Author's details

Name: Mitchell
Date registered: March 3, 2012

Latest posts

  1. Mitchell Lewis: Thoughts While Reading Old Blog Posts — December 15, 2014
  2. Mitchell Lewis: An Advent Prayer — December 14, 2014
  3. Mitchell Lewis: What Kind of Cat Do You Need during Advent? — December 11, 2014
  4. Mitchell Lewis: Do Even Dogs Need Ritual? — December 10, 2014
  5. Mitchell Lewis: Who are the Moravians? — December 9, 2014

Most commented posts

  1. Mitchell Lewis: Western Jurisdiction: Operate Outside the Discipline — 2 comments
  2. Mitchell Lewis: Scott Jones on United Methodist Doctrine — 1 comment
  3. Mitchell Lewis: The Crucifixion, The Romans and the People of God — 1 comment
  4. Mitchell Lewis: Some Thoughts for Free Citizens — 1 comment
  5. Mitchell Lewis: Chaplain Emil Kapaun, Medal of Honor — 1 comment

Author's posts listings

Dec 15 2014

Mitchell Lewis: Thoughts While Reading Old Blog Posts

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Thoughts while reading through some of the 800+ posts I’ve published here. Either

  • That’s not half-bad. Why don’t I write like that any more?


  • That’s pretty bad. What was I thinking?

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Dec 14 2014

Mitchell Lewis: An Advent Prayer

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An Advent Prayer reflecting on themes in Isaiah 61

Blessed are you, O Lord our God, for you deliver your people from their bondage. You set the Hebrews free from Pharaoh’s hand, led them through the Red Sea and established your covenant with them through your servant Moses. When your people were taken into exile, you overthrew the kings of Babylon and brought the captives home, just as your prophets had promised. In the fullness of time, you sent your son Jesus to deliver your people from their bondage to sin and death. You poured out your Holy Spirit to establish your church, so that all men and women everywhere might come into a life-giving relationship with your only begotten son.

As we wait for his appearing in final victory, we pray that you would deliver your oppressed church throughout the world. Save it from those who seek to harm it or destroy it. Deliver it from the schisms and heresies that threaten it to overcome it. Overthrow the sin and selfishness that too often characterize our life as Christians. Guide those who lead the church with your Holy Spirit and empower its members with the gifts they will need for the mission you have given us.

We also pray for the world still in bondage to sin and decay. We see the power of sin and despair at work every day as we watch the news, but we also know that suffering and hopeless invade corners of the world that the cameras never see.

Give good news to the poor. Bind up the brokenhearted. Comfort those who mourn. Give hope to those who despair. Bring peace especially to our communities still divided by race and class and politics. Let our cities, towns and villages all be places of joy and beauty, so that all might give praise to you.

Draw all the people of the world to know you, to put their faith in your Son Jesus Christ and to love and serve you in the power of the Holy Spirit, for it is in Christ’s name that we pray. Amen.

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Dec 11 2014

Mitchell Lewis: What Kind of Cat Do You Need during Advent?

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Joaquim Alves Gaspar, Wikipedia image, Creative Commons license
What kind of cat do you need during Advent?

A magnifi-cat.

Luke 1:46-55

et ait Maria magnificat anima mea Dominum
et exultavit spiritus meus in Deo salutari meo
quia respexit humilitatem ancillae suae
ecce enim ex hoc beatam me dicent omnes generationes
quia fecit mihi magna qui potens est
et sanctum nomen eius
et misericordia eius in progenies et progenies timentibus eum
fecit potentiam in brachio suo dispersit superbos mente cordis sui
deposuit potentes de sede et exaltavit humiles
esurientes implevit bonis et divites dimisit inanes
suscepit Israhel puerum suum memorari misericordiae
sicut locutus est ad patres nostros Abraham
et semini eius in saecula

Latin Vulgate

And Mary said, My soul glorifies the Lord
and my spirit rejoices in God my Savior,
for he has been mindful of the humble state of his servant.
From now on all generations will call me blessed,
for the Mighty One has done great things for me -
holy is his name.
His mercy extends to those who fear him,
from generation to generation.
He has performed mighty deeds with his arm;
he has scattered those who are proud in their inmost thoughts.
He has brought down rulers from their thrones
but has lifted up the humble.
He has filled the hungry with good things
but has sent the rich away empty.
He has helped his servant Israel,
remembering to be merciful
to Abraham and his descendants forever,
just as he promised our ancestors.

New International Version

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Dec 10 2014

Mitchell Lewis: Do Even Dogs Need Ritual?

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Dog-in-santa-hatHumans are liturgical beings. The rituals and rhythms of our existence give meaning to life. They help us know our our place in the world.

Have we inherited the need for ritual in the genetic code that we share with our animal kin? Is it literally built into our DNA?

My dog demonstrates a strong need for ritual. Let me give you three examples. When I leave for work, he follows me into the garage and jumps up to put his front paws in my chest before I get in the car. It’s not primarily about affection; he seems more interested in taking a look down the street than in anything that I am doing. When I return home, he jumps on the bed to lean against me when I take off my combat boots. After supper, he carries his own leash when we walk home from the mailbox.

He repeats his rituals in the same way, at the same time, day in and day out. He becomes upset and insistent if he thinks that he’ll be unable to complete them. They don’t put food in his bowl or provide any other tangible benefit. They are just a part of his expected daily rhythm.  I don’t think that they convey “meaning” in the human sense, but I do think that their repetition makes him comfortable about his existence and his place in the world.

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Dec 09 2014

Mitchell Lewis: Who are the Moravians?

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moravian-sealWho are the Moravians? The Moravian Church is formally known as the Unitas Fratrum, or in English, the Unity of the Brethren. I came to know the Moravians as a student in Winston-Salem which is rich in Moravian history. The Moravians were protestant before Luther, forerunners of modern evangelicalism, pioneers of the Christian missionary movement and teachers for John Wesley.

Protestant before Luther

In its earliest form, the Moravian Church predates the Lutheran Reformation. Jan Hus was a Catholic priest from Bohemia who tried to reform the Church in the early 15th century.

Many of Hus’ ideas presaged those of the Lutheran Reformation, and in 1415 he was burned at the stake for heresy. Following Hus’ death, some of his followers began a rebellion against the Holy Roman Empire. The rebels were defeated, but Hus’ ideas continued to inspire Christians in Bohemia.

In 1457, some of Hus’ followers decided to try a different approach. They founded the Unitas Fratrum as an autonomous church, seeking to return Christianity to a more primitive form. The Brethren church existed as a confessional community apart from the dominant culture and the apparatus of state support. The Brethren were a voluntary association, not a state church.

From their 15th century origins through the American Revolution, the Unitas Fratrum was also largely a pacifist church, with the communities living either in tension with or under the protection of the broader state government. Members typically accepted neither military service nor service on juries (so as not to impose judgments on those found guilty by the court).

When Luther started his own reform movement in neighboring Germany, the Brethren looked upon Lutherans as natural allies and kindred spirits. The 1535 Confession of the Unity of the Bohemian Brethren demonstrates the similarities between 16th century Lutheran thought and that of the Brethren. Lutheranism’s political success paved the way for Brethren’s growth in Bohemia and Moravia. By the mid 16th century, a large portion of the Bohemian population identified with the Brethren.

The Kingdom of Bohemia was located in what is now the Czech Republic and it included the territory of Moravia. Bohemia was an independent kingdom within the Holy Roman Empire, but in 1620 the Hapsburg dynasty imposed foreign rule, suppressed the Czech language and attacked the Brethren with great ferocity. The surviving Brethren either fled or went into hiding, practicing their communal faith only in secret.

Pietist Forerunners of Evangelicalism

In 1722, a group of the survivors – the “hidden seed” – made their way from Moravia into Saxony to ask Count Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf for protection and support. A Lutheran, Zinzendorf held what came to be known as pietist beliefs. By the late 1600s, the German churches had become increasingly focused on doctrinal precision and theological disputes occupied the clergy. Pietists believed that inward Christian experience, Christ-like living and faithfulness to the communal covenant were more important than agreement about every theological doctrine. The quintessential experience was the inward assurance of salvation through faith by the work the Holy Spirit.Those who were truly saved by their faith would show it through faithful living in the Christian community.

Pietist emphases included studying the the Bible in small groups (ecclesiolae in ecclesia or “little churches within the church”), using lay leadership in church governance and ministry, emphasizing the Christian’s private devotional life and the practical application of Christian teachings, preaching sermons to engender inward faith and Christian living and taking an irenic approach toward those with differing opinions (even unbelievers and heretics).

The historic Moravian church was a perfect fit with the burgeoning pietist movement.  SInce the 15th century, the Brethren had seen themselves as an incarnation of primitive Christianity and a church separated from the power of the state.  Like the pietists, the early Unitas Brethren distinguished between essentials and non-essentials.

Utopian Failure and Renewal

Zinzendorf took the Moravians under his wing and established the village of Herrnhut as a venue for them to practice this “new” form of religious community. Zinzendorf also welcomed other Christian dissenters of various sorts into the community.

As idealistic, experimental communes often do, the new community eventually fell into chaos and rancor. Fanatics wrangled for power and simple disagreements exploded into conflict. To address the problem, Zinzendorf resigned from his administrative duties in Dresden to devote himself to the full-time leadership of Herrnhut.

In May of 1727, Zinzendorf led the group to come together in prayer and to subscribe to a Brotherly Agreement describing how the group would live together in  Christian peace. Zinzendorf also organized the community into “bands,” small groups that met together to encourage spiritual growth and mutual accountability.

The Origins of the Love Feast

In August of that year, the community  experienced a remarkable outpouring of the spirit that led to joyful unity. Following communion in the morning, the people did not want part company to return home for the noon time meal. Zinzendorf provided food – a love feast or an agape meal – for the various groups, who then were able to continue in prayer, song and religious conversation.

With the events of 1727, the love feast became a regular feature of Moravian life. Its observance both celebrates the contemporary experience of brotherly love and the power of God, and recalls God’s deliverance of the Moravian community from itself in 1727.

Pioneers of the Missionary Movement

In the 1730s, the Moravians began to send missionaries into the the Americas and other parts of the world. The Moravians brought their message of God’s love to all, including slaves and indigenous peoples In their zeal for world missions, the Moravians became pioneers in what would become the Protestant missionary movement.

Moravian missionaries came to Savannah in 1735, but the mission work did not go well. Within a few years the Moravian community disappeared. Several other colonies also had a Moravian presence, but the strange Germans were not always welcome. Morvians, for example, were expelled from New York in 1744.

In 1741 the Moravians established a permanent presence in religiosly-tolerant Pennsylvania with the initial assistance of George Whitfield. (Whitfield and the Moravians had an up and down relationship over the years.) In Pennsylvania, Bethlehem and Nazareth were the centers of Moravian life. In the 1750s and 60s, the Moravians also established the North Carolina settlements of Bethabara, Bethania and Salem (all now incorporated into Winston-Salem). Today, the contemporary Moravian church’s northern province in the United States is anchored in Bethlehem and the southern province in Winston-Salem.

The missionary communities were all built on the Herrnhut model. Prayer and worship were central elements of communal life. Generosity and simplicity were important community values. The community sought to be a loving place of welcome for people from different backgrounds. Everything in the community was designed to further its constituents’ sanctification.

Herrnhut also sent Moravians out in pairs to various seek like-minded believers among the existing communities and churches of Europe. In labeling these dispersed Moravians as the “diaspora,” Herrnhut identified itself as somethiling like a new Israel. The diaspora Moravians met with those who hungered for Moravian-like assurance and community, regardless of their confessional affiliation. These simple, informal gatherings were warm and joyful, eschewing divisive theological arguments.. “The people should only sing, pray and talk with one another,” Zinzendorf said. “What goes beyond the discussion of Christian experience is offensive.”

Teachers of Wesley

In its mission to Savannah, the Moravians first encountered a young John Wesley in 1736. Wesley would continue his conversations with Moravian leadership even after he returned to London in 1738. Wesley experienced his heart “strangely warmed” within the context of his relationship with Moravian missionary Peter Boehler. Wesley also visited Zinzendorf in Herrnhut.

Wesely not only borrowed specific practices like bands and love feasts, those familiar with the Wesleyan revival will see traces of the Unitas Fratrum throughout early Methodist history. Wesley’s General Rules for his societies and Zinzendorf’s Brotherly Agreement for the Herrnhut community are cut from the same cloth even though the social contexts differed somewhat. Early Methodism’s exeriential orientation and high-demand Christianity echoed Moravian themes. Methodist doctrine, ethics, mores, attitudes, communal life and catholic spirit all show evidence of Moravian influence. In their impact on Wesley’s life and thought, the Moravians’ contribution to Christian history belies their relatively small numbers in the world today.

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Dec 07 2014

Mitchell Lewis: The World’s Largest Moravian Love Feast

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Moravian Love Feast at Wake Forest University

Sweet buns. Coffee with cream and sugar. Beeswax candles trimmed in a red frill.

I just finished watching the live stream of the 50th annual Moravian Christmas Love Feast from my alma mater. Wake Forest University hosts the world’s largest Moravian Love Feast in Wait Chapel on its Winston-Salem campus. Moravians founded the North Carolina towns of Salem in 1766, Bethania in 1759 and Bethabara in 1753.

The first Moravian love feasts in America were conducted in Savannah from 1735 to 1740. Moravians began the practice of holding love feasts in August 1727. The modern Moravian love feast has evolved somewhat from its earliest forms.

As a United Methodist, it is significant to me that John Wesley met some of these Moravians on his voyage to Savannah in the winter of 1735-36. Wesley was terrified on the sea; the Moravians weathered the storms calmly. The more Wesley came to know the Moravians, the more he was impressed by their faith and way of life.

When Wesley returned to London in 1738, he continued to converse with Moravians, especially the great Moravian missionary Peter Boehler. Boehler had a great effect on Wesley’s evangelical experience and theology, as did Wesley’s later visits with the Moravian leader Nicholas von Zinzendorf. And a Wesleyan version of the love feast became part of early Methodist life.

Boehler himself eventually migrated to Savannah. When the Moravians were expelled from Georgia in 1740, Boehler led them to the more tolerant colony of Pennsylvania.

What is a Moravian? What does the Love Feast mean and where did it come from? More on that later.

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